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Натюрморты-завтраки Осиаса Берта Старшего

Осиас Берт (Osias Beert), (1580-1624), - южно-нидерландский художник эпохи барокко, специализировавшийся на цветочных натюрмортах и натюрмортах типа "завтрак". Отец художника Осиаса Берта Младшего. Родился и прожил всю жизнь в Антверпене. Учился живописи у Андриеса Бастероя.
В 1608 Берт вступил в антверпенскую Гильдию Святого Луки. Художник считается учителем целого ряда голландских живописцев: Франса ван дер Борха, Франса Йекенса, Паулюса Понтиуса и Яна Виллемссена.



Osias_Beert_(I)_Blütenstillleben_mit_Flechtkorb_und_Vase.jpg

Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)
Stillleben mit Blüten in einem Flechtkorb und Blumenstrauss in einer Porzellanvase (oder Fayencevase?) auf einer Tischplatte mit Insekten.
Öl auf Holz. 39,1 x 64,3 cm.
before 1624



Происхождение натюрморта из различных источников еще долгое время сказывалось в разобщенности усилий ранних натюрмортистов, в отсутствии должных контактов между представителями отдельных разновидностей нового жанра. Однако, первые натюрмортисты Фландрии, Ян Брейгель Бархатный и Осиас Берт Старший не были прямыми наследниками их искусства, хотя именно оно сформировало окончательное решение фламандцев испытать судьбу в области натюрморта. Тогда же и родилась знаменитая теория о том, что устрицы надо есть в месяцы, в названии которых есть буква "р" (с сентября по апрель включительно). Его натюрморты-завтраки иногда называют маленьким голландским завтраком.

В Голландии его натюрморты до сих пор пользуются заслуженной популярностью. Благодаря натюрмортам-завтракам спрос на устрицы настолько увеличился, что со временем возник риск исчезновения этого моллюска, вот таким образом в 1771 году Людовик XV принял "Эдикт о регламентации рыболовства", один из четырех пунктов которого запрещал ловить и продавать устриц в период, когда они размножаются, то есть в летние месяцы.




https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Osias_Beert_%28I%29_-_Still-Life_-_WGA1571.jpg/1280px-Osias_Beert_%28I%29_-_Still-Life_-_WGA1571.jpg



Натюрморт

(Still Life)

43 х 54_д.,м.

Мадрид, музей Прадо





Вместе с Яном Брейгелем Старшим, Осиас Берт был наиболее значительным художником натюрмортистом в Антверпене начала XVII века. Он был не только одним из первых в развитии настольных натюрмортов, особенно изобилующих праздничными кулинарными изысками, но также автором роскошных цветочных букетов, которые он часто изображал в дорогих  китайских вазах.



 



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Последователь

Натюрморт с вишней, овощами и стеклянным бокалом

(Still life with cherries, vegetables & glass)

39 x 50_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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1615 (ок)_Корзина с цветами

(Basket of Flowers)

50.5 х 65.7_д.,м.

Даллас, Художественный музей





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1600-1624_Натюрморт

(Still Life) (атр)

46.5 х 79_д.,м.

Амстердам, Рейксмузеум





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1620-1625_Натюрморт с устрицами, фруктами и вином

(Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, and Wine)

52.9 х 73.4

Вашингтон, Национальная галерея





Как он развивал свое мастерство в жанре натюрморта специалистам неизвестно, хотя его интересы могли развиться под руководством его предполагаемого учителя, малоизвестного художника по имени Андрис ван Басероо (Andris van Baseroo), у которого он учился в 1596 году.



 



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Натюрморт (Still Life)

53.5 х 75.5_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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1610-е_Корзина с цветами

(Basket of Flowers)

53 х 75_д.,м.

Париж , Лувр







Круг

Натюрморт с жареной птицей в оловянном блюде, кувшином и др объектами

(Still life with roast bird in a pewter plate)

49 х 63.8_д.,м.

Частное собрание





Кроме того, существует вероятность, что стилистические и композиционные новшества Яна Брейгеля Старшего, а также Георга Флегеля (Georg Flegel. 1566-1638) во Франкфурте и Амброзиуса Босхарта (Ambrosius Bosschaert, 1573-1621) в Мидделбурге,  вдохновляли его.



 



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Натюрморт с десертом

(Still-life with a dessert)

50 х 67.6_медь, масло

Частное собрание





Беер вступил в гильдию Святого Луки в Антверпене в 1602 году и вскоре после этого заимел своего первого ученика, Ханса Эйкенса (Hans Ykens).



 



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Десерт со сливами, абрикосами, орехами. яблоками

(Dessert with plums, apricots, nuts. apples)

50.6 х 84.7_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Корзина с цветами

(Basket of Flowers)

53.7 х 74.9_д.,м.

Хьюстон, Музей изобразительных искусств





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Круг

Натюрморт с лимонами, каштанами и бокалами с вином

(Still Life of Lemons, Chestnuts and a Wine Glass)

27.8 х 32.9_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Натюрморт с яблоками, виноградом и вазой с цветами

(Still life with apples, grapes and a vase of flowers)

67 х 117_д.,м.

Вена, Музей Лихтенштейнов





В 1606 году Беерт женился на Маргарите Эйкенс (ум. 1646/1647). Их сын, Осиас Беерт Младший (1622 – ок.1678) тоже стал художником, успешно работавшим в отцовском стиле. Он, а также ученики Беерта, вероятно, были причиной многих реплик и вариантов композиций Беерта Старшего, сохранившихся до наших дней.



 



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Круг

Устрицы на оловянном блюде со сладостями в серебряной тацце и др объекты на столе

(Oysters on a pewter plate)

45.1 x 64.1_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Натюрморт с жареной курицей, ветчиной и оливками на оловянных тарелках

(A Still Life Of a Roast Chicken, a Ham And Olives)

51 х 65.2_д.,м.

Частное собрание





Edith Greindl отмечает, что у Беерта было пять учеников, среди которых в 1615 году племянник его жены Франс Эйкенс (Frans Ykens, 1601-1693) и в 1616 году Паулюс Понтиус (Paulus Pontius, 1603-1658).



 



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Натюрморт с фруктами, ягодам, орехами и рюмками

(Still life with fruit, berries, nuts and wineglass)

48.5 х 61.4_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Натюрморт с земляникой, грушами, персиками, рюмками и бабочками

(A Still Life With Strawberries, Pears, Peaches, Wineglass And Butterflies)

28.1 х 53.5_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Стиль

Натюрморт

(Still Life) (атр)

1600-1650_64.4 х 115_д.,м.

Амстердам, Рейксмузеум





Натюрморты Осиаса Беера Старшего, как это характерно для ранних натюрмортов, полны символов, которые трудно понять современному зрителю. Таким образом, его «Натюрморт с вишней и клубникой в фарфоровой миске», на котором изображены фрукты и насекомые, объясняется современным историком искусств следующим образом: «Осиас Беерт показывает как силы добра и зла борются за душу человека.



 



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1608_Натюрморт с вишней и клубникой в китайском фарфоре

(Still life with cherries and strawberries in Chinese porcelain)

49.4.х.65.5

Берлин, Галерея старых Мастеров





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Круг.

Натюрморт с устрицами, сладостями, хлебом,кувшином на столе

(Still life with oysters, sweets, bread, a jug)

47.6 x 65.4_д.,м.

Частное собрание





Человеческая душа - это клубника и вишня, которые считаются плодами рая. Бабочка - символ спасения и воскрешения, находится в оппозиции к стрекозе, которая рассматривается в качестве подвида мух, которые, в свою очередь, являются порождением дьявола».

 



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Натюрморт с фруктами и блюдом с устрицами

(Still Life Of Fruit And A Plate Of Oysters)

55.2 х 93.4_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Натюрморт с фруктами, ножом и др объектами на драпир столе

(Still Life Of Fruits With A Knife And Other Objects On A Draped Table)

72.7 х 105.5_д.,м.

Частное собрание





 Осиас Беер умер в Антверпене в 1624 году.

 



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Натюрморт с фруктами, орехами, хлебом, бокалами и ножом

(Still life with fruits, nuts, bread, two wine glasses and a knife)

75 x 54_д.,м.

Частное собрание





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Круг. Натюрморт с жареной птицей в оловянном блюде, бокалами и др объектами

(Still life with roast bird in a pewter plate)

48.2 х 66.8_д.,м.

Частное собрание





http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-yYXePkNGYF0/VfjCQfL-kcI/AAAAAAAAshU/FYocPOyOWxs/s1600/%25D0%259A%25D1%2580%25D1%2583%25D0%25B3.%2B%25D0%259D%25D0%25B0%25D1%2582%25D1%258E%25D1%2580%25D0%25BC%25D0%25BE%25D1%2580%25D1%2582%2B%25D1%2581%2B%25D1%2584%25D1%2580%25D1%2583%25D0%25BA%25D1%2582%25D0%25B0%25D0%25BC%25D0%25B8%252C%2B%25D1%258F%25D0%25B3%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B4%25D0%25B0%25D0%25BC%25D0%25B8%2B%25D0%25B8%2B%25D0%25BE%25D1%2580%25D0%25B5%25D1%2585%25D0%25B0%25D0%25BC%25D0%25B8%2B%2528Still%2Blife%2Bwith%2Bfruit%252C%2Bberries%2Band%2Bnuts%2529_57.7%2B%25D1%2585%2B84.8_%25D0%25B4.%252C%25D0%25BC._%25D0%25A7%25D0%25B0%25D1%2581%25D1%2582%25D0%25BD%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B5.jpg



Круг.

Натюрморт с фруктами, ягодами и орехами

(Still life with fruit, berries and nuts)

57.7 х 84.8_д.,м.

Частное собрание





https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Osias_Beert_%28I%29_-_Still-Life_with_Oysters_and_Pastries_-_WGA01569.jpg



Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

 Still-Life with Oysters and Pastries

 1610

 oil on copper

  Height: 46.6 cm (18.3 in). Width: 66 cm (26 in).

Current location 

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart







Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

Title  Still life with monkey

 1598-1623

  oil on panel

Height: 97 cm (38.2 in). Width: 126 cm (49.6 in).

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes





https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Osias_Beert_%28I%29_-_Still-Life_of_Fruit_-_WGA1570.jpg



Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

 Still-Life of Fruit

 1610s

  oil on oak panel

 Height: 51 cm (20.1 in). Width: 69 cm (27.2 in).

  Private collection





https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Osias_Beert_I_%28circle%29_Still_life_with_roasted_chicken.jpg/1280px-Osias_Beert_I_%28circle%29_Still_life_with_roasted_chicken.jpg



 Circle of Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

Stillleben mit gebratenem Huhn, Oliven, Früchten, Brot und Kanne.

 17th century

Öl auf Holz, 43,5 x 64 cm







Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

Still life with artichoke

1598-1623

oil on panel

Height: 52 cm (20.5 in). Width: 73 cm (28.7 in).

Museum of Grenoble







1620-1625_Натюрморт с устрицами, фруктами и вином

(Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, and Wine) (detail)

52.9 х 73.4

Вашингтон, Национальная галерея







Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

Stillleben mit Blüten in einem Flechtkorb und Blumenstrauss in einer Porzellanvase (oder Fayencevase?) auf einer Tischplatte mit Insekten.

(detail)

Öl auf Holz. 39,1 x 64,3 cm.

before 1624







1620-1625_Натюрморт с устрицами, фруктами и вином

(Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, and Wine) (detail)

52.9 х 73.4

Вашингтон, Национальная галерея





https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Osias_Beert_%28I%29_-_Bouquet_in_a_Niche_-_WGA01566.jpg



Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

  Bouquet in a Niche

 first half of 17th century

 oil on panel

  Height: 74 cm (29.1 in). Width: 52 cm (20.5 in).

Rockox House, Antwerp







Osias Beert (I) (circa 1580–1623)

Ваза с цветами в каменной нише

(A vase of flowers in a stone niche)

71 x 52_д.,м.

Частное собрание




Натюрморты-завтраки Осиаса Берта Старшего



Tags: Нидерланды, живопись, натюрморт, художники
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